The Sabbath rest was observed here. The people would work for six days and the seventh was to be a day of rest to the Lord. This is in honor to the Lord who crated all things in six days and on the seventh He rested. Jesus said "For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath." (Mat12.8). Jesus is our Sabbath rest, we are to rest from all are striving in Him.
The people complained again at Rephifim because here was no water to drink. The Lord allowed himself to be put on trial by sinful man and struck. The Lord said to Moses, "Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink." (19.6). Jesus was tried by sinful man and was struck, His blood was poured out. Jesus said "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day." (John 6.54). The manna and the rock are a type and picture of the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
Jethro Moses father in-law counsels Moses to appoint judges. The Lord then descends on Mount Sinai and is about to give the people a covenant. The covenantal promise is that if they obey the Lord's voice and keep His covenant they shall be His treasured possession among all people. They would soon fail that covenant as we all do, "for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Rom.3.23). I believe the Lord's intent was to show man's need for redemption, man's total dependency and need for a Savior.
For the bible text use this link: http://olivetree.com/read/nasb/Exodus/16