When Jesus taught his disciples to pray, (Mt 6:9-13) he told them to pray for these seven: God’s name, God’s kingdom, God’s will, our physical needs, our debts, our debtors, and our deliverance. Yet, some of the prayers in the psalms differ from what Jesus taught his disciples, so how should we understand them? In psalm 108 David’s praises the Lord and asks the Lord to Give Victory. Psalm 109 David invokes vengeance on his adversaries. Psalm 110 is about God giving dominion to the King. Psalm 111 is about praising the Lord for his goodness. Psalm 112 is about the one who fears God prospering. Psalm 113 is about the Lord exalting the humble. And Psalm 114 is about the Lord delivering Israel from Egypt. Most of these psalms fit with what Jesus taught his disciples to do and how he taught them to pray; however, psalm 109 does not fit Jesus’ teachings regarding our prayers about enemies.
Jesus taught his disciples: Matthew 5:43-45 (NASB)
“You have heard that it was said, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.
Jesus is telling us to love our enemies both with action and prayer. This prayer by David, which invokes vengeance on adversaries is different than what Jesus taught; therefore, it should not be modeled in the Christian life, so why is it in Scripture? I think it interesting that in the canon of Scripture, psalm 109 is placed just before psalm 110.
While teaching in the Temple Jesus refers to psalm 110: Mark 12:35-36 (NASB)
And Jesus began to say, as He taught in the temple, “How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? David himself said in the Holy Spirit,
‘THE LORD SAID TO MY LORD,
“SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND,
UNTIL I PUT YOUR ENEMIES BENEATH YOUR FEET.”’
I think that psalm 109 is placed just before psalm 110, so that we may know that the kings who descend from David are not like the King whom God will give all authority. The one whom the Father will give all authority to is the Son of God. He is a perfect King as our heavenly Father is perfect. (cf. Mt. 5:48)